Description: American toads are approximately mm 2. Their base color is often accented with yellow or tan patches that contain randomly distributed dark spots across the back in most cases.
A light stripe extends down the middorsal. The venter is light with numerous dark markings. American toads are sexually dimorphic - males are typically smaller than females and have dark throats during the breeding season. The skin of these toads is dry and densely covered with warts.
They usually have only one or two warts in the largest of the dark spots on the back. There are enlarged warts on the tibia. Behind each eye lies a swollen parotoid gland. The postorbital ridges are separated from the paratoids completely, but are often connected by a short spur.
Two subspecies exist: the eastern American toad and the dwarf American toad.
In addition, hybridization frequently occurs between American toads and both Fowler's toads and southern toads where their ranges overlap. Distribution and Habitat: As the most broadly distributed species of the family Bufonidae in North America, the American toad can be found in parts of every southeastern state except for Florida. Their range extends north to eastern Manitoba, parts of Ontario and Quebec, the Maritime Provinces, and southern Newfoundland.
It also covers the northeastern United States and the Midwest states to eastern Kansas and the Dakotas. Dwarf American toads even reside as far as northeastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma. American toads live in terrestrial habitats ranging from hardwood or pine hardwood to white pine-eastern hemlock forests. These toads are not averse to open fields and pastures or residential areas either, as long as the habitat contains accumulated leaf litter, sandy or loamy soil for burrowing, moist hiding places, and an abundance of food.
They require shallow bodies of water that are free of fish in order to breed - these may be temporary ponds, roadside ditches, or the margins of lakes. Reproduction and Development: January or February marks the beginning of the breeding season for American toads in the Southeast, although it lasts from March to July in most of their range.
Males will gather in choruses to beckon females to wetlands- they usually call at night, but also sing on warm, wet days during the height of the season. The call of the male is a long, high-pitched, musical bu-r-r-r-r that is seconds in duration.Toad Sprays Poison!
The female selects a mate and he grasps her behind her forelimbs, encouraging her to deposit 2, eggs in double, gelatinous strands. The egg strings attach to vegetation or lie at the bottom as deep as inches until they hatch days later.
Tadpoles develop for up to 2 months before becoming toadlets. They reach reproductive maturity at years. Habits: Encountered infrequently during the summer, American toads are inactive during hot, dry periods and from late fall until breeding begins early in the year. They are most active at night, spending the day hiding in burrows or underneath logs, forest ground litter, or rocks.
These toads show hiding spot fidelity, sometimes returning to the same location every day. During the non-breeding season, individuals have a home range of several hundred square feet, but adults may travel more than half a mile during the breeding period.Dogs and, less frequently, cats may be poisoned by oral exposure to many types of toads.
Severity varies greatly, depending on extent of contact and type of toad. Toxins are produced by all toads, but potency varies with species and apparently between geographic locations within individual species. Toad toxin, a defensive mechanism, is secreted by large glands located dorsal and posterior to the eyes and by smaller glands distributed throughout the skin.
The toxin, a thick, creamy white, highly irritating substance, can be expelled quickly by the contraction of periglandular muscles in the skin.
Its many components include bufagenins, which have digitalis-like effects, and bufotoxins, which block sodium channels in nerves similar to the actions of local anesthetics, catecholamines, and serotonin.
The most toxic species in the USA is the giant or marine toad, Rhinella marina formerly Bufo marinusan introduced species that is established in Florida, Hawaii, and Texas. R marina is also known as the cane toad in Australia, where its range extends across the northeastern half of the continent.
The Colorado River toad, Incillus formerly Bufo alvariusfound in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico, is another toad of sufficient size to have potentially lethal levels of toxins in its skin secretions.
Encounters with toads are most common in warm or mild weather. Signs of poisoning are variable and range from local effects to convulsions and death. Severity depends on host factors, extent of exposure, length of time since exposure, and species of toad.
Local effects profuse, sometimes frothy salivation, accompanied by vigorous head shaking, pawing at the mouth, and retching are immediate, probably because the toxin is extremely irritating. Vomiting is not unusual, especially in severe cases, and although it may persist for several hours, no further signs may develop in poisoning by common indigenous toads.
With more severe intoxication, as from R marina or I alvariuscardiac arrhythmias, dyspnea, cyanosis, and seizures are characteristic. Cardiac and CNS involvement can be life-threatening. A specific antidote for toad toxins is not available.
Therapy is directed at minimizing toxin absorption and controlling associated clinical signs. Minimal treatment may be required after exposure to toxins in areas where less toxic toads are found. The mouth should be immediately and thoroughly flushed with copious amounts of water. Affected animals should be prevented from inhaling aerosols of saliva or water that contain toad toxin. More severely affected animals require more extensive therapy.
Cardiac arrhythmias should be identified and controlled using standard treatment protocols also see Arrhythmias. If bradyarrhythmias exist, atropine or dopamine should be considered; tachyarrhythmias should be treated with lidocainephenytoinpropranololor procainamide hydrochloride. Digoxin -specific Fab may be considered in cases of severe arrhythmias refractory to standard antiarrhythmic therapy.
CNS excitation, if present, should be controlled by benzodiazepines, barbiturates, or a combination of the two. Anesthetics that predispose to ventricular fibrillation eg, halothane should be avoided. Supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation may also be needed if cyanosis and dyspnea are prominent. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world.
The Merck Veterinary Manual was first published in as a service to the community. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. Common Veterinary Topics. Videos Figures Images Quizzes. Clinical Findings and Diagnosis:.
Test your knowledge. The acronym SLUD stands for salivation, lacrimation, urination, and defecation, which are the clinical signs associated with muscarinic cholinergic overstimulation caused by certain toxins.If we can't tunnel through the Earth, how do we know what's at its center? A lady introduce her husband's name with saying by which can stop or move train what is that name.
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Hottest Questions. Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions. Dreams and Dream Interpretation. Wiki User That depends on the type of frog you are dreaming of and what activity the frogs are engaged in during the dream.
To see a frog in your dream, represents a potential for change or the unexpected. The frog may be a prince in disguise and thus, signify transformation, renewal or rebirth. The frog symbolizes uncleanness or fertility. To see frogs leaping in your dream, indicate your lack of commitment. You have a tendency to jump from one thing to another. It may also suggest that you are taking major steps toward some goal.
It parallels your progress. To dream that you are catching a frog, signifies your carelessness concerning your health. To hear the sounds of a frog in your dream, indicates that you have not accomplished what you wanted. To eat a frog in your dream, represents some unsavory or unpleasant task that you need to perform. If you swallow a whole frog in your dream, then there is something that you need to do or say, that is literally difficult to swallow.
Consider the phrase "a frog in your throat" to suggest that you are unable to speak. You feel you have lost your voice. Means you have bad breathe and you stink of frogs. Asked in Dreams and Dream Interpretation What does it mean to dream about being chased by frogs? Nothing I think it is just a weird dream.
Asked in Dreams and Dream Interpretation What does it mean to dream of frogs being thrown at you? Your "Princess and the Frog". Love, Oliver. Asked in Dreams and Dream Interpretation What does it mean to dream someone stepping over frogs?
This dream appears to be a variation on the idea of "leap frog. Asked in Dreams and Dream Interpretation What do dreams about frogs jumping on you mean.? This dream's interpretation depends on your personal experience and opinions of frogs. If you think frogs are cute and delightful - perhaps having had pet frogs in childhood - then the dream expresses joy and delight about something wonderful and unexpected that has come into your life.
But if you view frogs as disgusting and slimy, the dream illustrates your disgust and dismay over something awful in real life that seems to be "jumping" at you out of nowhere.Symbolism of Toad Animal Totem. Image: Toad sitting on a gravel path. Photo by Amanda Linette Meder. Updated And just as an FYI this article includes an affiliate link to one of my favorite books. Wondering what the symbolism is for seeing a Toad? Looking to explore the deeper meaning of amphibians in your life?
Studying wetlands as my life's hobby, contemplating the symbolism of the common Toad sp: Bufo bufois something I've delighted in doing on more than one occasion. Familiar creatures are some of the best teachers on earth because they have amazing skills at adaptation, being able to cross and thrive in nearly any ecosystem. If Toad has hopped into your life today, whether on a dream or your path, below are nine different interpretations you can use to look at it.
Image of a toad unclose by Josch13 from Pixabay. You're at a meeting grounds, a crossroads in your life with a decision facing how you'll operate best from this place forward, the Toad is telling you to tread lightly making your decisions right now.
You have time to pause and wait. Go slowly, go carefully. Hop gently right now. Toads are camouflage beings, which could point to your need at this time to go camouflage in what you're doing at this time. Be silent about the progression toward your goals. So when you see a Toad, it is time for you to watch everything. Wait, watch, and observe what the bigger picture around you is, look at the broader concept before making any choices.
Despite it being unattractive, a frog can be associated with positive times. Considering the evolution of a tadpole to frog means changes are ahead. As the frog lives both in water and on land it is associated with new life. Its evolution symbolizes the transformation of the human mind. The frog can be considered a pure soul, surrounded by an ugly appearance.
We all know that a frog is a cold-blooded animal. This is important from a dream spiritual perspective. Frogs are part of the family known as amphibians. In my Oxford dictionary tucked between my computer right now! I feel that this is quite important in your dream because it can imply that things might not be as they seem?
Almost every frog resides in ponds, lakes or rivers and of course, they also live on land. They need water to regulate their temperature as I have already mentioned and in spirit terms water represents emotions. I will now move onto specifics that could be found in your dream.
What does it mean to dream of a green frog? Frogs come in a range of different shades, color and also sizes. Many people find they dream the frog is a strange color.
If the frog is black in color or extremely dark green then this represents losses and adjustments in life. It can also represent that in your youth you have healed and recovered and you now enjoy helping other people pick up the pieces of life. Being able to move on after difficult times is our own choice and successfully dealing with old memories may come in the form of the frog during the dream state.
So, green stands for a fresh beginning. And frogs stand for luck and success in dreams.
Meaning, you will experience something that will improve you as a person and improve your life, in general. What does it mean to dream of a gold frog?
A few users have contacted me after seeing gold frogs during the dream.
Toad – Spirit Animal, Symbolism and Meaning
This can indicate sensational results in the future. The frog is representative of material attainment. There is a fine line finding a better future especially after pain.
You can find a future beyond whatever pain of any kind that you have experienced. A golden frog in a dream can simply transform your outlook in life. How you respond to others is a choice, there are many different of choices that you need to make but the gold frog that you will encounter some happiness going forward.
What does dreaming of a frog mean?Many studies have shown that both men and women are dreaming about spiders. These dreams are typical for people of all ages, including children. Dreams about spiders may have different meanings. These dreams are usually uncomfortable and even disgusting.
They may be also very terrifying so you may wake up several times over night. Spiders in dreams usually reflect your future and your success in the following period. You will experience happiness and wealth and your social relations will be much better.
But, you may also experience fear about your future life. A spider can also be a symbol of a female figure that is very important in your life.
It can be your mother, your sister or some other important female person. When you want to interpret a dream about spiders, it is necessary to take into account all the circumstances from your dream.
You should remember of all details, if you want to discover the real meaning of your dream. You can dream that a spider has bitten you or that you are eating a spider. One of the most common dreams about spiders is a dream in which a spider is spinning the web or a spider is jumping on you. You may also dream that a spider is in your mouth or in your hair.
In most cases spider dreams are quite positive. Seeing a Static Spider. If you see in your dream a static spider, it may refer to a power that is protecting you from your own destructive behaviors. A Spider Web. If a spider in your dream is spinning the web, it is a good sign. This dream refers to a reward that you will get for hard working. You will experience a productive phase in your near future. It is possible that you will get a higher position in your job. Also, if you see in your dream that a spider is spinning the web, it can reflect your own creativity.
The web can also mean that you are feeling trapped in your actual relationship. Also, dreaming of a spider web may indicate that you feel like outsider in your real life. What does it mean? Well, you want to create your own web and to be at a distance from other people and situations. Sometimes the web that is made by spiders may refer to global communication in the world. Spider on the Wall.Last Updated on Sep 19, It is no wonder. Toads and frogs are capable of some amazing feats and they are mysterious at the best of times.
If you dream about a toad it means that you are about to either come into contact with a very lethal poison, metaphorically speaking, or there is a frog prince that is just yearning to kiss you and prove himself a good and decent person that will love you despite all your faults.
Overview of Toad Poisoning
Toads are very important symbols, but like so many dreams, the interpretation is up to the dreamers themselves. Toads usually visit men in their dreams. Dreaming of toads often represents the side of you that is difficult to express. It is a reminder that you need to grow. Put some work into the things you have trouble expressing.
It could be that new skills need more practice to perfect them. It is a time of learning and self-development. Dreaming of toads is a reminder of your ability to transform yourself and your life. Accept new opportunities to expand your horizons.
While you may try to hide the truth about yourself, it does you no favors. Let the true you shine for the world to see. If tough things happen, treat them as lessons and keep moving. Killing a toad is a warning that others gossip about you and your life decisions. They may be right in some instances. It is a warning to take better care when making tough decisions. Others are watching and waiting for you to slip up. A toad jumping in a dream is a sign there is unfinished business that needs urgent attention.
Have you been moving on to new things while leaving other things incomplete? This will not make your life easy. Touching a toad means there is soon good news about something you have long waited on. This will help you finish a project you are working on. There are new beginnings on the way. While you may have fears of failure, if you come from a place of love and integrity, you can achieve success and prosperity.